Saturday, August 24, 2019

Fetal Heart Abnormalities Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Fetal Heart Abnormalities - Research Paper Example Genetic predisposition is considered to be a key factor while maternal issues such as infection, diabetes, lupus and drugs trigger the onset. Ventricular and atrial septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common forms of congenital heart defect. Incidents of truncus arteriosus and transposition  are rare. Anatomy and the heart function Our heart has four chambers; two ventricles and two atriums and has two atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid) to regulate the blood flow between ventricle and atrium. Right atrium and ventricle are filled with deoxygenated blood while left atrium and ventricle are filled with oxygenated blood received from the lungs. Deoxygenated blood collected by the main veins fills in to the right atrium and then to the right ventricle. Right ventricle pump blood to the lungs via pulmonary artery and oxygenated blood comes from the lungs through pulmonary vein fills in to the left atrium. Then it move down to the left ventricle. The ventricul ar wall contracts to increase the pressure enough to distribute blood throughout the body via aorta (Kumar, 2007). Septal heart defect –hole in the heart The mid heart wall, septum separates the left and right sides of the heart. Congenital septal heart defect is identified when unclosed gaps exist in the septum at birth. Any opening of the septum may cause mixing of oxygenated blood with deoxygenated blood resulting an oxygen deprivation to the body tissues. Atrial septal defect During the normal heart developement Interatrial Septum  which separates the left and right atriums is open throughout the fetal stage to avoid the lungs that are not functioning. The placenta supplies the oxygenated blood. But it supposed to be closed after birth when the pulmonary circulatory pressure is reduced. Some literature reported the prevalence of open atrial septum upto to 25%. However the symptoms are absent or not significant for most of the affected individuals and some will never be diagnosed. Place and the size of the opening determine the severity of the symptoms (Kumar, 2007). Common symptoms are blue color of the extremities or cyanosis, breathing difficulties, murmur or additional sound of the heart, growth retardation and difficulty of feeding. This can be diagnosed during fetal development by ultrasound scan. Echocardiography, auscultation and Electrocardiogram or ECG can be used to identify the defect after the birth. The defect can be corrected surgically and the decision of the surgical correction depends on the severity of the symptoms and size. Currently two correction methods are been practiced. The catheter correction is the less invasive method. During the catheter correction a small catheter is inserted in to a vein in the upper thigh under the anesthesia or sedation. The catheter carries a septal  occluder device which can be placed at the septal opening. Once the occluder device is positioned correctly the catheter is removed. The heart tiss ues start to grow around and on the device. This procedure is being practiced from early 90s and known to have less complications and minimum surgical mortality. However all the septal defects cannot be treated by catheter procedure and require a surgery (Squatting, 2002). Open heart surgery This is the most common corrective procedure practiced to correct Septal defect. None like catheter procedure

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