Monday, April 1, 2019
Impossible To Have Objective Knowledge Philosophy Essay
Impossible To Have target Knowledge Philosophy EssayAs forgivings we live with the inevitable nonion of our suffer consciousness, burdened with the endless pursuit of intimacy, we etern totallyy lay external a c atomic number 18ful conglomeration of facts and experiences that shape our truly being. Impris unrivaledd within our accept cultural paradigms we fear our declare publicationivities, entirely apprised that our diction, value and beliefs impact our every choice. We do not live in a social vacuum instead, we roam free in a stimulant and subjective society. The acquisition of association, or dependableified line up belief as here defined, is learned through our tainted sensory experiences whether auditory, visually or kinaesthetically. However, there sticks the belief that genuine areas of friendship can remain immune to our polluting paradigms, areas of experience that do not evoke truth in their subjectivity exactly tell the truth in their objectivity. W e often count subjective knowledge hot and impulsive, wrought with emotion and bias, its validity tarnished by its opinionated and unbalanced spirit. Objective knowledge is logical, considered, proven and factual, based in the realms of reasoning science and maths. But to what extent is mathematical and scientific knowledge truly objective? And does subjective knowledge really hold whatsoever lesser value than its idolised counterp maneuverwork or are we just afraid of own cultural paradigms?What can be less coarse to interpretation and more(prenominal) immutable than maths? Mathematics is the science of mingy proof and the art of drawing coherent conclusions entirely independent of interpretation we assume this to be the epitome of objective knowledge. Maths indubitable nature affords it enormous practical value, we are certain that 2 + 2 = 4 and that any circles circumference, no matter how big, when divided by its diameter equates to pi. much(prenominal) facts rest unde niable and eternal, maths gives us non-trivial, substantial knowledge that rests true outside of experience. However, a question remains as to where maths exists? Is it, detect or invented? The discovery theorem indicates a Platonic view of maths, both(prenominal)where in a metaphysical realm, the perfect forms of a circle and pi dwell and mathematicians, by solving problems, are discovering an entity that already exists separate from our reality. If humanes werent actively doing maths would maths exist at all? And can discoveries actually be made about genial fictions or is maths a human construction?J. S. Mill argues that mathematics exists in the eye of the commentator and that mathematical truths are empirical generalisations based on a colossal number of experiences1. It does appear that Maths is not a universal actors line mathematicians struggle to talk to non-specialists about their work because maths like all other knowledge can be culturally variable, subject to su bject area and change. Mathematicians form epistemic communities the Romans, for example, had no concept of zero, Egyptian multiplication composite repeated doubling of numbers and in West Africa only tax write-off was use to express numbers (not 2+2 scarcely 6 -2 = 4). Hence, maths, as a human endeavour is susceptible to varying mental interpretation, so to what extent are we mentally selecting particular kinds of experience and deeming them to be important? We reached our modern, established perspective of maths through communication and collaboration, so it knowms that although the numbers and patterns themselves are objective, the learning and advancement of maths is more inter-subjective common ideas shared and amalgamated.Science too, provides us with a framework for objective knowledge science appears indisputable because it is based on thoughtfulness and fact. Culturally, we deem something scientifically proven to equate to the absolute truth. We believe our scientific account of the innovation to be true and dismiss the hocus pocus of alternative medicine, creationism and the paranormal. Science is about how the knowledge base works there being only once correct explanation for any phenomenon. Simultaneous discovery, like the discovery of DNA initially by Watson and Crick shortly followed by Franklin and Klug demonstrate the solidity and objectivity of science. If we could rewind the report of science, developments and discoveries may have occurred differently and by different scientists but the outcomes would be very similar. Gravity would still give weight to objects, causing them to befall towards the ground and cells would still be the smallest unit of life.However, the practice of science, as a human endeavour is founded in uncertainty, each time we learn something brisk with the astonishment comes the realisation that we were wrong before, David Bohm said, The notion of the absolute truth is shown to be in poor correspondence with th e actual development of science. Scientific truths are better regarded as relationships that hold in some limited domain. Hence, the indubit ability of science is based in observation and fact but observation and fact are dependent on the theory we choose to believe. What we see depends on how we choose to look at it and as humans we cannot conserve the world purely and unhindered. Instead we see and structure things around our own cultural paradigms. Our science is based on a Westernised view that arm and objectivity are best reached through classification and explanation but does this render it useless? Of transmission line not, science is there to be used but it is not there to tell us how things are. Science is not powerful because it is true it is true because it is powerful2.But is truth interchangeable with objectivity? Or can we harness our subjective and emotional human natures to further enhance our knowledge? Montaigne claimed, to come across via the heart is not to understand and through our quest to objectify knowledge we ignore our most underlying emotional instincts. A scientific definition of emotion is the modification of neural activity that animates and focuses mental activity but is this not missing the bouncy essence of what it is to feel an emotion? This description of emotion is like describing art as a collection of blobs on canvas or delineate poetry as words in short lines. Some knowledge demands subjectivity and complexity, notions of good and beauty, for example. In many ways formal knowledge of maths, philosophy and geography are a means to satisfy the highest and noblest human impulse and self-actualisation the arts. Often human truths cannot be expressed using the language of rationality it seems the creative person attempt to address these truths while embracing their own creative process. Indeed art is a personal creation and contains the opinions of the artist but with science the feelings of the scientist are negle cted from the final understanding of the process. Does this manipulate science better than the arts? It would if science and the arts were investigating the similar truths science is obsessed with knowledge of the universe whereas art lends itself to knowledge of humanity. signal flag Murdoch famously in The Sovereignity of the Good suggests that appreciation of the arts allows us to communicate the problems of rationality and empiricism that plague the human condition. Murdoch believes there to be some sort of objective good but sees that the means of achieving this end is to apply our consciousness towards art thus directing our being towards unselfishness, objectivity and realism. The very nature of art as an ephemeral entity forever transforming and evolving, transports us away from the comfort of our own subjectivities and plunges us into alternative human truths. No one is suggesting the lines and colours reveal truths in themselves as Margaret Atwood said, context is all. To read WH Audens Sonnets entitled, In Time of War, is not to gain facts or objective truths about the Nipponese occupation of China in 1938 but instead to bask in the literature, meaning and beauty of poetry. Audens words speak a deep and vitally human truth so by trying to reduce this art to a series of concrete facts are we not diminishing it? Of course the sky didnt throb like a feverish forehead and patently the Japanese soldiers were not bound like the heiress in her mothers womb. It is more the penetrating insights, the deep sense of social awareness and contextual relevance that afford poetry and the arts as a whole the ability to bestow knowledge about humanity during the most turbulent and arguable eras. If anything, art is a continuous cultural narrative, evolving and translating the daily events that form our accounting.The attempt for certainty, objectivity and absolute truth lends itself to the study of history, for what could be more certain than that which has already happened? As G.R Elton suggests, the study of history is concerned with a subject matter more objective and independent than that of the natural sciences, and we often confess the apparent immutability and un-changeability of the yesteryear. But as Napoleon argued, what is history but a fable agreed upon? From the age of eleven, during history classes we are indoctrinated into the substance of bias and the vigilance required to exercise caution around historic opinion. It is almost impossible to expect any human historian to parry their own paradigms and write free from influence. We are forever imposing our own values and moralities onto the past my own essay on the reputation of cigaret Marie-Antoinette during the French Revolution was largely angled around my own prejudices against misogynism and patriarchy. Perhaps more than anything, history is a social construct, facts about the past that are interpreted in the present. However, the selective and human nature of history does not deem it twisted or useless or fabricated, by removing the judgemental and interpretational aspects of history we are left with fragmented and scattered etchings of the past. The historian herself is aware of her bias and thus seeks a convergence of evidence in a hope that further analysis and reasoning will transform such(prenominal) etchings into an original, insightful and beautiful picture.