Monday, April 1, 2019
People Living With Hiv Health And Social Care Essay
People Living With Hiv wellness And hearty C be Essayhuman immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the nearly ch each(prenominal)enges to human living and dignity. It affects all levels of the society and has a massive bear on on ball-shaped economic and social development, (Rowden, 2009). Studies have been conducted on its tint on human life and how it could be controlled. This review was conducted by tour a number of websites of different publishers and organisations for published articles on human immunodeficiency virus/ back up and soft touch. Literature covering a period of 8 years from 2002-2010 was extracted from Assia, PubMed, Sage, British Medical Journal, Cochrane and Absco-host. However due(p) to the topic in question, literature from close to recent articles would have been preferred. The term human immunodeficiency virus/ help daub was apply to capture a wide range of articles covering all beas of the globe. Abstracts from xx s tudies were reviewed for the study, objectives, methodology and key findings. Twelve studies covering different locations of the world were chosen. applicable documents and compositions from other organisations such as UNAIDS, WHO and the earthly concern Bank were alike reviewed. both(prenominal) qualitative and quantitative data was used to present the information.Due to the challenges presented by human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS to global prevalent wellness, Baum. (2008241) calls for embodied participation of all sectors in the fight against this deadly disease. Baum emphasises on the collective participation betwixt the fructify deal and the health structures as key to succeeder. This is further back up by Farmer, (1999), who does not condone the dominance of the biomedical perspective in health and heal. He relys that rig plurality have a of import role in the process of health improvements and emphasises on the importance of perceive to, and understanding t he lay commonwealths experiences of ill-health and how it is affected by their daily lives.Goffman, (1963), and Parker and Aggleton, (2003),s theories of tarnish champion us to understand how stigma is constructed and its influence in sights lives. They view stigma and discrimination as functional systems which maintain boundaries between those in might and those without. Through such power, social inequalities argon developed leading to concept of social norms. These formulate stigma by governing interactions between flock and reinforce power structures that serve to isolate those that are regarded as outsiders, ( ). both theories have been widely used in human immunodeficiency virus related stigma to highlight how the prejudice, negative attitudes, abuse and mal preaching directed towards plenty nutriment with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS have hindered the progress of pr yettion and treatment.Findings from the studies highlight the consequence of lay people for prev ention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS to be effective. In Tanzania, the study unveiled some discriminatory and stigmatised practices such as gossiping about patients human immunodeficiency viruss status, neglect, verbal abuse, testing and disclosing human immunodeficiency viruss status without consent, (Tanzanias Stigma Indicators field of operation Test Group, 2005). Similarly in India, health workers were disclosing patients HIV status to their families without the patients consent, (Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2007). Harassment, avoiding and isolation of HIV-positive patients and testing without counselling are common features of branding in some studies. Findings showed that stigma and discrimination in health tending settings contribute a great deal in keeping people away from accessing HIV/AIDS treatment and care, consequently compromising their health and wellbeing. Patients felt greatly affected by the health workers feeling awkward with them and treating them in an inferior manner. Some health workers wore protective clothing even if there was no physical contact during interactions. This affected peoples willingness to access the serve despite it being vital to their health. The fear of being identified as infected with HIV was one of the reasons why some people extend testing for HIV even though they had the symptoms and only accessed services when their disorder was at an advanced stage, (Bond, Aggleton, 2002, Human Resources of Health, 2007, Kinsler et al, 2007, Varga, Sherman, Jones, 2006, Kalichman, Simbayi, 2003). In Zambia, HIV-positive health workers were hiding their HIV status from their colleagues in fear of being stigmatised, (Dieleman et al, 2007). Experienced and perceived stigma and discrimination revealed by the studies have severe influence on people living with HIV/AIDS access to health services.While most of the literature on HIV/AIDS and stigma and access to health services is negative, inv estigate also highlights increasing evidence of the value of accessary and de-stigmatising HIV services in some parts of the globe. Brazil has been viewed favourably by people living with HIV/AIDS. The lay people inform supportive inclusive structural systems that create healthy environments for all. The success degree of Brazils effective HIV/AIDS and stigma prevention and control is attributed to diligent participation of different groups in the society and the Brazilian government, (Caltado, 2008). Another success of collective efforts of the lay people and the health structures has been noted in in the south Africa where most people believe in traditional healing. Aids Activism in South has made a positive significance in HIV/AIDS preventing and treatment by translating and mediating the biomedical memory access within local ideological frameworks which are easily understood and acted on by the locals, (Colvin, Robins, 2010).From the research findings it is clear that co llaboration between the lay people and the biomedical orgasm to healing is essential for successful control of HIV/AIDS and stigma. on that point is no cure for AIDS but Anti-retrovirals (ARVs) can prolong life by keeping the level of HIV in the body at low levels hence delaying the process between HIV and AIDS, (Robin, 2009). While ARVs are right away readily available in most countries, concerns are in general centred on the rising numbers of newly infected people. According to the World Bank, 60 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Access to treatment has increased dramatically but for every degree centigrade people on treatment, 250 become newly infected, (www.worldbank.org/EOL81VLA20 ). For this reason, pressure in now rising on the effectiveness of only relying on the biomedical approach as a concept of health and healing HIV/AIDS. Diseases such as HIV/AIDS hire to be tackled using both the biomedical approach and the lay perspective for prevention and tre atment to be effective.The shortfall of the biomedical approach to treatment lies on its focus that is certified to the physical unsoundness of an individuals body and the scientific understanding of disease therefore making the approach to a great extent based on materia medica. While pharmacology is beneficial in the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, it benefits the pharmaceutical constancy which has also been critiqued as hindering the progress on controlling HIV/AIDS. Pharmacology further promotes the privilege of the biomedical model which may be inappropriate to the communities and create feelings of helplessness and vulnerability. This may contribute to the undermining of alternative approaches to treatment and prevention, (Global Health Watch, 2008, Rowden, 2009, Farmer, 1999). Such interventions are not successful in nations who believe in indigenous forms of healing, for example the dependency on traditional healing in Africa.The lay approaches to healing are effe ctive because they are imbed within local social and cultural structures, but as with HIV/AIDS care, this cannot be confirmed as true. Unlike in the biomedical approach, indigenous approaches seek to heal the whole person by linking the illness with the persons social and economic background. In South Africa, despite people heavily relying on traditional healing approaches, the HIV prevalence continued to rise. implication towards effective control of the epidemic has been noted with the increase in availability of ARVs, (Colvin, 2009). In the UNAIDS report on global AIDS epidemic 2010, in 7 countries, five of them in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, HIV incidences increased by more than 25% between 2001 and 2009. Sub Saharan Africa, although still remaining the most highly affected by the epidemic, figures all stabilised or showed signs of decline owing to positive behaviour due to increased services that are embedded in local culture. The report affirms that stigma and discrim ination, lack of access to services and bad laws can authorise the epidemic worse, (www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm). The attribute to increased incidences in Europe and Central Asia could be on the countries reliability only on the biomedical model of healing.Baum, (2008) asserts that association level mobilisation where there is partnership between the lay people and structures is the effective way of combating HIV/AIDS and stigma. Active participation of lay people will not only promote individual level responses to dealing with the stigma, access to care and preventing of HIV/AIDS but could also go a long way in improving global public health, (Parker and Aggleton, 2003). Improving health care services and making them kind to people living with HIV/AIDS without fear of being stigmatised, educating health care professionals about the impact of stigma on patients and policies that encourage inclusion body of people living with HIV/AIDS in decisions that affect th eir lives are some of the key factors of effectively tackling the epidemic, (Farmer, 199090).Advocacy is another way lay people engaged to improve the relationship between health structures and people living HIV/AIDS. The Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS, (GIPA), formally adopted as a principle at an AIDS Summit in 1994 emphasises the need for involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS at all levels in the fight against the disease. According to UNAIDS, people living with HIV/AIDS understand their situation better therefore their voices could be heard well if their needs were presented by people in the same situation, (www.unaids.org). In the Zambia study, with supportive structures, the professionals living with HIV/AIDS are in a better position to advocate for people accessing services. Baum, (2008550) claims that advocacy involving public health practitioners is an effective way of influencing structural barriers in public health.Both the biomedical and lay per spective approaches to health, healing and prevention of HIV/AIDS and stigma have both benefits and limitations. There is therefore the need for holistic approaches that collaborates both models for HIV/AIDS and stigma interventions to be effective. HIV/AIDS has claimed a lot of lives and continues to claim more through collective action of the societies and the national structures the epidemic could be controlled.