Thursday, March 14, 2019
Black Nationalism Essay
Critic whollyy discuss the contri yetions of twain booker T. upper-case letter and W. E. B DuBois to the belief of macabre nationalism in the join States. What were the study obstacles they faced in their articulation of the mysterious Nationalist governmental theory? booker T. capital letter was an the Statesn political occupyer, educator and author who be to be one of the most dominate figures in African American hi stage in the start together States ( booker, par. 1). William Edward Burg sullent Du Bois was a noned scholar, editor, and African American activistwho sought to eliminate discrimination and racial discrimination (.. During the late nineteenth and early 20th century entertainer T. majuscule and W. E. B. DuBois were two great work force who significantly influenced the root word of disg public lifeful nationalism in the unite States. Though they both deficiencyed to see an America where the inkiness was do by with proper respect and par, their views on how to obtain these noble closings contrasted one an early(a). The political theory of DuBois and cap were so completely varied that the great unwashed became subjected to following the dogma of one or the other. With the knowledge that only one could be the spokes patch for the tend the two began a bitter battle to control the shadowy nationalism political theory.Amid the competition a march onst one a nonher, both custody still had to face other obstacles oft(prenominal) as racialism in stray to further the goals of shadowys of the period. eventide though the two men had differing opinions on the ideology of shadowy Nationalism, both would greatly contri furthere to the idea of minatory Nationalism. However, their differing typesets on Black Nationalism portrayed a divide amongst African Americans of the metre. To chthonicstand why capital of the United States and DuBois had such differing opinions it is essential to look spinal column into the enviro nments that both men came from. natural into sla precise in 1856, majuscule was the son of a gabardine man and his slave mother Jane. charm experienceing up in Virginia, chapiter proceeded in both a coal mine and as a salt packer. In 1872 chapiter left his work to go the Hampton Institute. The major pedagogicsal doctrine of the school was that former slaves should receive a hard-foughtheaded command that centered on skills instead of a heavy(p) arts education. At the institute capital of the United States worked to pay his trend through school. later leaving the school, Washington worked for several long time before he received an ap expressment to establish the Tuskegee Institute in 1881.At Tuskegee, Washington use m every(prenominal) grimaces of the education he received from the Hampton Institute. One of the central ideas that he brought from the institute was the belief that pitch- dullamoors should learn a trade or skill. (Hine 369) William Edward Burghardt D uBois scene fixd his parall(a)eling views to those of Washington. In contrast to Washington, who was innate(p) on a orchard, DuBois was natural in a small North Eastern town where he was subject to slim ex regulated racism and acquired a much high(prenominal) education. He was once quoted as saying, I was born free.Washington was born a slave. He matt-up the lash of an overseer across his back. I was born in Massachusetts, he on a slave plantation in the South. My great-grandfather fought with the Colonial Army in New England in the American Revolution. I had a glad childhood and acceptance in the community. Washingtons childhood was hard. I had m each more(prenominal) advantages Fisk University, Harvard, and graduate years in Europe. Washington had little nut schooling (Hine 400). This quote exemplifies his opponent foundation compared to that of Washington.DuBois background do him more comfort subject with giveation with purenesss, spot Washingtons created a deep sub conscious feeling of vexation and submission. While DuBois enjoyed the benefits that the upper class manners had to offer, Washington was faced with scorn, dehumanization, neglect, and prejudice, all of which he had to over pose. It is apparent for the quote that DuBois sympathizes and understands the demeaning nature in which Washington was treated which is the ultimate core of Washingtons pessimistic status toward ordination. Everyone has a different animation experience.What one experiences early in their life shapes the modality they think and how they view connection later in their life. typically an early life of tranquility, less hardships, and opportunity to succeed lends itself to one having a more optimistic view of federation where as an early life of great hardships and little to no opportunity results in an individual having a more judgmental and disparaging view of society. This was the case with Booker T. Washington. developing up as a slave, Washington was presented with more emotional and carnal hardships which were the causes of his amateural view of society.However, Washington manipulated the lessons that his early life experience had taught him to shape his view on society. He utilized these teachings to provide insight on how he wanted to bring most change at bottom society in arrangement to initiate onward motion and advancement. Booker T. Washington was specially interested in the advancement of Blacks in a predominantly albumen society. Growing up as a slave he had little opportunity to achieve anything, however, because he was a slave he intimate to value old-fashioned hard work which transposed over to him greatly valuing agricultural education as a major aspect of Tuskegee.With hard work beingness one of his fundamental values, he was convinced that the surest way for dusky good portion to advance in society was by learning skill and demonstrating a impartingness to do manual lug (Hine 369). In a speech at the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta in 1895, Washington express that no range can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in as in writing a poem. It is at the quarter of life we essential begin, and not at the top (Hine 370). This tale insist that Washington believed people, mainly wispy people, could gain the respect and acceptance of sportsmanlike Americans through acquiring skills and becoming prosperous small farmers, artisans, and shop salvageers. If Blacks were to continuously border this humility hence it allow eventually result in the eradication of the lam problem of the time. Booker T. Washingtons belief in living a simplistic life in order to progress not only stemmed from the idea of hard work hardly also carried on to other beliefs such as the importance of liberal arts education and especially the foundation of industrial growth.He was very committed to promoting industrial education. He stresses that many positive things will limb from such a foundation including the growth in grisly peoples well-disposed life, the growth in murky peoples educational life, and the growth in blue peoples spiritual life (Hine 371). This statement shows that Washington felt that men and women who acquired these skills would be recognised as productive contributors to the southern economy thereby, once again, deteriorating the color spring that was separating society at the time. The purpose of Booker T.Washingtons ideas for onerous to assimilate Blacks in this manner was obviously to avoid protesting and upheaval that could result in people getting harmed. His goal was to assimilate the drear people into white America in a civilized manner, however, in order to achieve it he believed that sick people should only understand there short letter in society. One positive aspect of Washingtons beliefs was that it promoted steady labor. Washington believed in educating calamitouss in surgical incisionic ular skills in order to maintain steady jobs and make a living.It was important that blacks were able to endure a job in order to go healthily as families, provide for themselves, and help develop their frugal independence. At the time, there was increase competition between poor whites and blacks. In order for a black worker to get a job, they mustiness not only deal with learning a particular trade but also overcoming racism. macrocosm educated in common manual labor provided the basis for blacks to work up from. Although blacks were commonly restricted to the set out give jobs, having a formal training in a skill do their value as a laborer rise.This labor also provided another positive aspect in that it transferred money from the white economy to the black economy. By being able to work for whites, blacks were able to use their income as they pleased. No daylong did they sacrifice the restrictions placed upon them in slavery. Washington advocated a diverse labor field for blacks. kind of than only advocating farmers, he believed that blacks could be educated in other manual labor such as masonry, mining, and smith work. another(prenominal) positive aspect of Washingtons beliefs is that it was the beginning in face lift blacks out of their cut stamp out class position.For the first time blacks were not simply working on farms or plantations, they were acquiring skills. These skills provided the foundation for blacks to work up to gaining an education, earning money, and providing for the time to come of the next generations. This not only benefits oneself, but also the black community. The ideas of Washington did not inspire conflict or fear in whites because whites viewed that Washington was promoting keeping blacks in menial jobs quite an than the higher paying work or typically white jobs such as doctors,lawyers, or politicians. The ideas of Washington enabled educational institutions such as the Tuskegee Institute and other black colleg es and universities to exist that assistd agricultural, mechanical, or technical skills. Since these institutions encouraged blacks to only strive for technical careers rather than offering a liberal arts education it did not inspire fear in whites. Whites were willing to chuck up the sponge black schools to exist that encouraged these skills because in turn these skills would offer a chintzy labor but effective labor source.Also these institutions were non-threatening to whites because they offered skills and trades versus an education that would allow for black minds to grow and develop. Even though the education that blacks received from these institutions did not compare to those of liberal art universities, it still did offer blacks a retrieve at some sort of education. Although not advance the deeper growth of the black mind, schools like Tuskegee offered its students an education that would allow them to become proficient at a skill and earn an income.Washington believe d that by working and hard, increasing their economic holding and becoming masters of many trades that they could eventually end racism and be accepted by whites. He believed that blacks should not let racism deter one from working. Washington once said, Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities (Hines 397). This shows that he believed that blacks must use their opportunities to better themselves rather than focusing on the veto aspects of life.Washington also said, In our humble way, we shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay sight our lives, if need be, in defense of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life with yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one (Hines 397). Washington believed that by blacks staying in their positions and working diligently, blacks would eventually be accepted by whites. He believed in blacks somewhat remaining devoted to the white r ace rather than rising against it.By advocating working within the confines of white society rather than rising in opposition against it, Washington promoted the safety of blacks during this time period. Washington pushed for gradual and deliberate social acceptance of blacks as they began larn to white culture. By gradually working towards being accepted, this kept the opposition of whites to a minimum. As long as whites viewed blacks as harmless, blacks were able to ride out growing and improving themselves.The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social comparison is the extremist folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant clamber rather than of artificial forcing, said Washington (Hines 398). Washington believed that it is impossible to tweet someone to accept one another rather one must make people want to accept them. Washingtons goal was not to force blacks into the upper class society, but to gradually encourage their acceptance and possibly an eventual rise in social stature.patronage the many positive and beneficial aspects of Washingtons view of Black Nationalism, there were many drawbacks that hindered the widespread acceptance of his ideology. He believed in maintaining the lower class position of blacks. By saying that all blacks should work in menial labor, he limited the opportunities for black people to strive for anything more. Rather than encouraging and uplifting blacks in believing that they could do anything they wanted to, Washington believed that blacks should remain content in their lower class state.Considering that Washington, a part white and black man, was the spokesperson for the race, he was stating to whites that he was the exception rather than the rule. Whites were able to justify his leadership and politics by attributing his success to his white ancestry. Whites were pleased with Washingtons stance that bl acks should stay with canonical tasks for a number of reasons. Typically, these jobs were usually lower paying and had terrible working conditions. These jobs were considered lower class labor, and the majority of whites, with the exception of poor whites, were not interested in pursuing these jobs.The lack of competition do it acceptable to the majority of whites. If these jobs were considered black jobs then it was fine for blacks to work in these fields. During this time period, the category of black jobs became redefined to these positions. Whites were moving out of these fields at the same point that blacks were variant to move up in their job status, therefore it was okay for blacks to counterchange these whites since it did not adversely affect them. Also Washington constantly advocated the point that blacks should work long and hard to prove their worth to whites.He offers a reconsideration of what it means to be black (Owens, par. 2). However, whites were never acceptin g of blacks. It was intimately impossible for blacks to gain acceptance by simply showing their hard work during a time period where they were consistently looked down upon. Washington also believed that blacks must remain passive in their attempts to improve life. While whites used methods such as brute force and intimidation to keep blacks down, Washington believed in turning the other cheek rather than encouraging conflict.At this time period, it would produce been almost impossible for blacks to gain any amount of social standing by continuing this passive ideal. As the spokesperson for the black race, Booker T. Washington presented various and influential ideas about Black Nationalism in America. Many of his ideas were beneficial to the black race at the time, such as the advocating of skills and trades, however, other ideas, such as his protagonism for maintaining the social position of blacks and non-confrontation, were not effective in improving Black Nationalism.Washingto n principles revolved around blacks working as shopkeepers, farmers, and other low-skilled professions. He believed, On such a foundation as this will grow habits of thrift, a love of work, economy, ownership of property, bank accounts. Out of it in the future will grow practical education, professional education, and positions of public responsibility. Out of it will grow moral and religious strength. Out of it will grow wealthiness from which alone can come leisure and the opportunity for the enjoyment of literature and the fine arts (Hine 371). In stark contrast to this, DuBois believed, If my own urban center of Atlanta had offered it to-day the choice between 500 Negro college graduates forceful, busy, ambitious men of property and self respect and 500 black cringing vagrants and criminals, the normal vote in the favor of the criminals would be simply overwhelming. Why? Because they want Negro detestation? No, not that they fear Negro crime less, but that they fear Negro ambition and success more.They can deal crime by chain gang and lynch law, or at least they think they can, but the South can conceive neither machinery nor place for the educated, self-reliant, self- imperative black man (Hine 371). W. E. B. DuBois believed in the opposite of what Washington believed. alternatively of believing that the way for blacks to succeed was within industry, DuBois believed it lied not within training but within educating. DuBois believed that the learning that blacks received should go beyond training for work or learning a skill. He believed that it was necessary for blacks to gain an education that would allow them to develop and grow mentally.He mentioned that the function of the Negro college, then, is clear, it must maintain standards of popular education, it must seek the social regeneration of the Negro, and it must help in the solution of problems of race connection and cooperation. And finally, beyond all this, it must develop men (Hine 370-71) . By receiving an education, blacks would then become better men and could be able to lead the black race. By having large numbers of educated blacks leading the race, DuBois felt that this was the ruff way to end racism.In his ideology DuBois felt that there would be a group of blacks that would lead blacks to prosperity, social acceptance and bring about the end of slavery. He characterized this group of people as the talented tenth part part (Hine 401). In other words, the most educated and lift out suited 10 portion of the black population would be used to lead the black race as a whole. He affirms to that work alone will not do it unless inspired by the right ideals and guided by intelligence. Education must not simply teach work it must teach Life. The talented Tenth of the Negro race must be made leaders of thought and missionaries of culture among people.No others can do this work, and Negro colleges must train men for it. The Negro race, like all other races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men (Hine 401). This statement exemplifies DuBois strong belief in an elite group of back men how will arise to lead a deprived race into a society that will accept and acknowledge their talents, skills, and wisdom. While advocating for the best of the black race to lead the rest of the black race, DuBois also had different opinions on how to confront racism. Instead of trying to circumvent racism DuBois wanted to eruption it, becoming somewhat of a militant leader (Maddox, par.3).He did not promote settling for meager jobs, he wanted to attack discrimination in all forms including disenfranchisement and Jim Crow laws. DuBois was not willing to deferral for whites to give blacks their rights. Also DuBois was not tolerant toward blacks who were not willing to oppose for their rights. With the ideology that DuBois adopted, there were many positive aspects that he brought to the idea of Black Nationalism. Education is one of the most important aspects that DuBois stressed in his ideology. DuBois believed that blacks could not hope to eclipse their position in life without an education.With this belief he encouraged blacks to go to numerous colleges and universities in order to receive an education. another(prenominal) positive aspect that DuBois came to push with Black Nationalism was the view that white racism should be confronted. Throughout this time period, white racism was overt and abundantly clear for what it was, however, blacks were not in a position to confront this. Du Bois believed in encouraging blacks to stand up for their rights and for the elite talented tenth to show whites that they were not to be viewed as unrefined barbarians.DuBois believed that whites were more than happy to have blacks working for them. With whites perfectly content to allow blacks to work under them in a neo-form of slavery the same social position that blacks were in would continue to exist without change. With the knowledge that racism w ould not change unless it was presently confronted, DuBois began to believe in this ideology of confrontation. One of the greatest contributions that DuBois presented was his idea of higher education. He believed that it was essential for blacks to gain a deeper theological education, rather than the basic skilled education.DuBois believed it was important to gain this education in order to gain status of the talented tenth. In his ideals, DuBois believed that it was important that blacks did not need to be lead by one spokesperson such as Washington, but instead could be led by intelligent, resourceful, educated black Americans. Although he had an idea of a more talented group of people, these lines were flexible and able to be changed with new faces of black America. He understood the need to have different and multiple representations, rather than one blanketed statement about black Americans that would encourage misrepresentation and stereotypes.While there were many positive aspects of the ideology that DuBois put forth, there were also some problems. Dubois idea of a allot group of black intellectuals whose purpose would be to set out to steer an militant effort to secure the rights of black citizens is a very manful idea, however, it becomes problematic when one places this enormous responsibility in the hands of such a small group of individuals (Hine 401). The fact that he felt that merely ten percent of the black population would be qualified to lead the struggle for black equality, explained earlier, has its importance.Nevertheless, this idea has some absurdness to it. To put the blame of trying to correct the discriminative situation that was accruing at the time on purely ten percent of the black population could be arduous on that particular group. Therefore, instead of progression within the movement it would possibly cause a regression within the movement and deter any success that could accrue. This ten percent of black intellectual lea ders should not focus on wrestling the task of establishing equal civil liberties for blacks on there own.Instead, they should focus on teaching the remaining ninety percent of the black population to lead as well. By litigateing this task the black race would not have to rely merely on a few group of individual to fight the struggle for their liberation into a society of equality. Alternatively, many black people will have the efficiency to lead their own struggle in their particular area of the nation. In contrast to Booker T. Washingtons passive attitude to accomplish black equality, W. E. B. DuBois, on the other hand, had a more competitive attitude.DuBois felt that to achieve the black communitys goal of eliminating racism the black community should attack it head on. Unlike Washingtons idea of simply sitting back and let the White community easily accept the black people and recognize them for their hard work, DuBois wanted to actively assert the black community into socie ty swiftly and without prejudice. This tactic could pose to be over aggressive which would ultimately retract from what he wants to get accomplished. Some states, mostly northern states, would be able to tolerate this aggressive tactic and possibly even acknowledge the efforts of DuBois.However other states, peculiarly the southern states would find his aggressive method as offensive thereby diminishing the popularity of DuBois goal viewed by the white community. Another problem with Dubois idea on how to confront racism was that it did not take into consideration everybodys economic standpoint. He believed that with the acquisition of a higher theological education rather than simple basic skills education, the black community will be able analyze the society in which they live and make conscious decisions on how they would like to live instead of simply accepting their position in which society had prepared for them.However, for many black to acquire that theological education in that time was quite challenging because not every black person or family could afford to pay for that higher education. To revive these situation free educational institutions could be established, but somewhere down the line the expense to run the school would become overwhelming without monetary abet from the state. The black institutions would have extreme difficulty obtaining financial support from a predominantly white state who felt that they had already made a place for the black race.Although both Booker T. Washington and W. E. B Dubois made great contributions to the idea of Black Nationalism, their strategies would be questioned and would also be met with much objection. The major obstacle they faced in their articulation of a Black Nationalist ideology was opposition from each other. Their contrasting up-bringing allowed them to have different views and opinions of society. It also helped in forming their attitude of how to go about expressing their Black Nationalisti c ideology. Washington experience as a child made him more passive.His childhood was one of privation, poverty, slavery and back-breaking work (Yankowitz par. 1). Growing up as a slave he well-educated to be more submissive and accepting of things presented to him and therefore he felt that the opportunity for black people to succeed will come slowly with obedience and serenity. DuBois, however, up-bringing made him have a more forward outlook on society and life in general. Unlike most blacks living in the United States, Du Bois had grown up with more privileges and advantagesHe had suffered neither severe economic hardship nor repeated encounters with blatant racism (W.E. B Dubois, par 4).Because he grew up in a well-to-do setting he learned to have a more assertive personality resulting in his aggressive approach to confront racism. In a statement made at the Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition in 1895, Booker T. Washington alludes to his opposition of the tactics utilized by W. E. B DuBois by mentioning that the wisest among his race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremist folly (Hine 396).This statement affirms that if one is to be aggressive in their manner to acquire equality in the society in which they live, then it would surly lead to the death of their efforts. The statement can greatly be associated with DuBois methods of articulating Black Nationalism ideology. much opposition to Washingtons conciliatory stance on racial matters stemmed from William Monroe Trotter, an educated Harvard editor of the Boston Guardian, who became the most vociferous critic of Washington (Hine 399).Trotter referred to Washington as the Great Traitor, the Benedict Arnold of the Negro Race, and Pope Washington which hardly bothered Washington. However the nicknames did, along with many argumentative articles that he wrote, cause unsettling skeptics about Washingtons techniques Similarly, Booker T. Washingtons metho d of articulating Black Nationalism ideology contradicted W. E. B Dubois. In his book entitled The Souls of Black Folk, Dubois remarks that Mr.Washington distinctly asks that black people give up, at least for the present three things, First, political power, Second, insistence on civil rights, Third, higher education of Negro youth, and bear all their energies on industrial education, the accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South (Hine 396). It revealed that Washington did not want black people to expect too much but should greet menial labor as a timber in the struggle for progress. DuBois greatly detested this notion and preferred the assertive strategy which he felt to be the most effective way to ensure progress.Though Booker T. Washington and W. E. B DuBois had conflicting ideas of Black Nationalism ideology, the two presented ideas that lasted and effect the ideas of future black nationalist. Works Cited Americas Story from Americas Libraries. 2006. The Li brary of Congress. 3 Oct. 2006 . Booker T. Washington. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 21 Nov 2006, 0724 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 21 Nov 2006 . Hine, Darlene Clark, William C. Hine, & Stanley Harrold. The American Odyssey Volume Two. upper berth Saddle River, New Jersey Prentice-Hall, 3rd edition 2005. Maddox, Alton H. , The untold story of the Civil Rights Movement Part I. New York Amsterdam News 96. 44 (2005) 12-14. W. E. B Dubois. MSN Encarta, The Online Encyclopedia. 2006. 6 Oct. 2006 . Owen, Williams R. Old Negro, New Negro. Rev. of The Education of Booker T. Washington American Democracy & the Idea of Race Relations, by Michael Rudolph West. Black Issues Book Review May 2006 45 Yankowitz, Donna. Booker T. Washington. 2006. 6 Oct. 2006 .