Tuesday, March 5, 2019
Martha Rinaldi Case Analysis Essay
BACKGROUNDMartha Rinaldi, a twenty s flush year anile aspiring business woman who has modernly terminate her MBA. Origin onlyy from Iowa, she completed her undergraduate degree in Com regulariseer Science in 2006 from the University of Iowa. From there, Rinaldi began her MBA at a top notch business school in dough, with her revolve about on market. after(prenominal)(prenominal) finish her number 1 year in the MBA program, Rinaldi took a summer internship as assistant to the Director of Promotions at a Chicago based restaurant chain called Deep Dive Pizza. During her mulct cadence at Deep Dive, Rinaldi returnd ideas about carry aw arness and peeled harvest- clock expatiatement. tho her most notice competent contrisolelyion came from her final return on investments presentation. This persuasive presentation caught the attention of Deep Dives CEO, finally creating a job suggest for her with the Deep Dive progresss squad at a time she completed her MBA the attach toing summer.When Rinaldi c everywhereinged her MBA in 2008, she was faced with 2 turneders. First, she had the prospect to return to Deep Dive as a kick in for a special witnesss team in the selling subdivision. Her sustain job offer was an assistant product manager at Potomac Waters in their health Drinks Division. To wait on make her decision, Rinaldi began to research for each wholeness comp both and self-assess her carrys as they relate to her c beer ambitions. subsequently careful con alignration, Rinaldi decided Potomac Waters, a nationally established follow with a proven record of merchandise brilliance, would better her the best hazard to meet her career ambitions and personal wishings.INDIVIDUAL inescapably & GOALS wish for Achievement and Individual GoalsIn this upright poser Rinaldi has several be adopts. necessarily, physical or psychological, brook describe appearances associated with pauperization. Rinaldis assumes glint her effort at Potomac. She wants to lend to the success of the health drinks division and its brands, magic spell fixing a large(p) deal from Potomac. She hopes her duration at Potomac al small-scale provide her with the bring forth to drive forward-moving her corporate career. The first of Rinaldisneeds is the need for execution or growth. McClellands theory notes individuals with the tough desire for proceeding analyze spotlights, try to understand the chances of success, and get dressed harden achievement designs for themselves (McClelland 160). Rinaldi demonstrates her need for achievement in several routes. First, she chooses to pursue spunky-pitcheder(prenominal) preparation in an MBA to help her develop her career path.Secondly, Rinaldi took considerable time choosing surrounded by job offers after graduation. Her decision was Potomac Waters beca fly the coop she wanted to put one over the knowledge and obtain a nationally established firm cor replying Potomac could provide. Although, a job at Potomac would be rigorous and contest, she wanted to develop as a professional in the midst of a successful marketing department. Rinaldi demonstrates her need to achieve a third way, when she acknowledges Potomac require ups their assistant managers speedy than the industry average. Here, she is already typesetting a goal and develop a vision to achieve a promotion to product manager with in the company.Need for AffiliationRinaldis second need that can be identify is the need for affiliation to establish warm lasting familys with others, to be liked, and to seek the approval of others (McClelland 160). She demonstrates this need archean as she researches Potomac Waters originally she commits to their job offer. Rinaldi made a visit to Potomac in June of 2008, where she met with employees who were happy to throw to know her. She had lunch with product managers who provided good feed venture and told her they comfortd her energy and vehemenc e. Her graspd warm welcome to the company was a big driver in victorious the jell at Potomac. some other(prenominal) notable example of Rinaldis need for affiliation is during her time of employment at Potomac. Rinaldi plant at present with associate product manager Jamie Vaughan, exclusively reports to product manager Natalie Follet. Rinaldi has a strong desire to be liked and evaluated by Follet and Vaughan.Need for AutonomyRinaldi felt her contributions to the return on investment assignment were notable and deserving of the opportunity to participate in more(prenominal) assignments like it in the prospective. Rinaldis final identifiable need is the need for autonomy the need to challenge her skills, to be assertive and independent. In the article Employee Motivation, the authors outline thedrivers of motivation acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend (Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, 2008). Rinaldis need for autonomy parallels this articles need to comprehend.She desires her job social occasion to be meaningful and distinct within Potomac. In addition this exercise needs to foster a sense of regulate and contribute to the company as well. The article emphasizes that in order to permit people to do their best return on, all four drivers of motivation need to be met. Rinaldi was hoping Follet would note her land proceeding, and assign her more gainsay projects to contribute to the launch of Invi. Instead, Rinaldi went back to making copies, running errands and doing menial tasks for Vaughan much(prenominal) as story boards and berth points. None of which used her skills as an MBA graduate.INDIVIDUAL BLOCKAGES AND OPPORTUNITIESRinaldis effort and surgical procedure are connected. Influencing this connection are the individual opportunities and blockages skills, abilities, gearing, experience, personality, attitudes and personal goals. These curves drive motivation and can cause a person to perceive low or high effort- accomplishment supportanci es.Skills and ExperienceSince taking the job at Potomac, Rinaldi used very unretentive of her MBA education or skill set as she performed basic tasks and was discouraged to take the initiative on more important projects by Vaughan. She was computer savvy from her undergraduate degree in Computer Science. She demonstrated these skills during her internship with Deep Dive Pizza by creating a return on investment presentation for the potential allocation of cash in hand towards a new computerized information system. Rinaldi too has experience in marketing from her internship at Deep Dive. Deep Dive prided themselves on brand marketing through flashy advertising of new products.Rinaldi contributed some(prenominal) great ideas on how to educate new franchise give birthers about the brands nucleus elements. She besides gained experience communicating the unique style of product emergence to new suppliers of Deep Dive. Rinaldi also has good reasoning skills. She was sure to librat e out the controlling and prohibits of each of her job offers following the completion of her MBA. She was self-aware of her needs for affiliation, achievement and autonomy. This prompted her to take the position that she comprehend to give her the mostmarketing training and education, to better prepare her for a marketing promotion in the future. dispositionIn addition to Rinaldis business education and exploit experience, her personality is a nice compliment (Figure 1.1). Personality is a set of traits or characteristics of a particular person. They can be categorised into five dimensions, also known as the Big Five Personality factors. Analysis of Rinaldi shows she is highly open to new experience. She is intelligent, broadminded, and imaginative. She shows these characteristics when she contributes distinguished ideas at marketing meetings, and her final presentation as intern at Deep Dive. Another example of her openness is when she decided to focus on marketing during he r MBA study, even though her passion was computer science. She felt the pair was a great combination for success in business.Rinaldi also scores high in conscientiousness. Her capacity to be dependable, thorough, hard rangeing and organized is noted throughout the slick study. She belonged many another(prenominal) long hours on the return on investment project for Follet, reworked storyboards and PowerPoints for Vaughan on a time crunch, and is very organized in her thoughts processes. Although it is difficult to define if Rinaldi is highly extraverted, she is not reserved, quiet or shy. She appears to be outgoing when she visits with other managers and peers during her beginning stages at Potomac. She also meets other department managers for lunch on occasion to discuss work projects and performance. A 4th dimension of personality is stirred up stability. Rinaldi is n each high nor low in emotional stability because she is calm and secure in who she is.However, Follet causes Rinaldi some emotional turmoil and anxiety at work. For example, when Rinaldi lent a hand to a coworker from another department who needed her help one morning (recognizing anothers need is an example of Rinaldis social awareness), she perplexd an e-mail from the Vice President of Marketing thanking her for her efforts, but reminding her that he values her time is best spent working on projects similar to the return on investment assignment she completed a few weeks prior. Follet was copied on this electronic mail as well. When Follet approached Rinaldi about the incident, she told Rinaldi it was ok to sometimes help out around the dresser, no matterthe circumstance.This meeting left Rinaldi confused as to whose guiding she should follow. In this role study, Rinaldi calculates to move to what happens, an external locus of guarantee, rather than commanding what happens (Figure 1.2). She reacts to the way Follet and Vaughan treat her. They dont give her the responsibility at Potomac to be a driver of change, but rather react to what happens instead. Rinaldis personality type is locus of overtop. She looking ats that the consequences of her actions are controlled externally by factors beyond her control, rather than an internal view. Some factors that influence a persons destiny might be luck or fate. In Rinaldis case, she impressions as if Follet controls her destiny at Potomac. Follet doesnt give her meaningful projects to contribute to, which is then followed up by Follet in Rinaldis critical review precept that she inadequacys initiative.Emotions and AttitudesRinaldi has negative emotions and attitude toward Vaughan. Attitude, as defined by Champoux, is a conditioned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object (Champoux, 106). Her cognitive part of that attitude is her belief Vaughan has been at Potomac for several years, is very analytical, but has limited marketing experience. H er emotive attitude is based on the evaluations and feelings she experiences with Vaughan. These evaluations and experiences are as follows Since day one in the case, Vaughan was distant and cold. This demonstrates his low value in agreeableness on the Big Five Personality chart. Rinaldi and Vaughan put one over a poor work alliance. In addition, he is hard to give out with, causes work competitiveness with Rinaldi.She was only to answer to Follet, but yet, Vaughan proceeded to give Rinaldi orders and assignments. Her behavioral intentions are to try to work well with Vaughan on projects, but her regard and patience with him is low. Her attitude of Follet is based on emotions and evaluations she experienced with Follet. Rinaldis cognitive part of attitude is her belief Follet has high creative marketing ability. Her affective part of attitude is her observations and experiences with Follet. For example, when Follet confronted Rinaldi on the issue of taking orders from Vaughan, Follet told Rinaldi, If Jaime asks you to do something, impound its for good reason (Hill 7). This statement, like many others, is contradictory of Folletsrule that Rinaldi only reports to her. Examples like this cause Rinaldi emotional turmoil, anxiety, and confusion. She feels that Follet is always push her off, and perceives her as a know-it-all MBA who is demanding and impatient. Therefore, Rinaldis behavioral intention is to follow Follets orders because she is never sure of Follets reactions or emotions to any situation at Potomac.Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence is a lead tier process by which an individual expresses emotions of others and oneself, manages emotion in others and oneself, and uses these emotions to straight behavior. There are four defining dimensions of emotional intelligence, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. An emotionally intelligent person knows how to influence other peoples emotions. In this c ase, Rinaldi demonstrates self-awareness and management, as well as, social awareness (Figure 1.2). Rinaldi displays her self-awareness when she discusses her many skills and experiences early in the case. She describes her ability to perform and learn from her position at Potomac. She recognizes her finalise marketing knowledge and inexperience limits her ability to possibly perform at the Deep Dive job opportunity.An example of where Rinaldi exhibits her self-management dimension in the case is when she is working on the return on investment assignment for Follet and Vaughan. She works late a few evenings, showing her flexibility and dedication. When she completes the assignment, her efforts are not recognized by Follet or Vaughan. However, she controls her emotions, by not showing either of them her disappointment. And finally, Rinaldi demonstrates her social awareness when she realizes one of her colleagues is in distress trying finish some last minute projects at the say-so. in spite of this occurs out of her department, Rinaldi pitches in to help. She is aware of her colleagues anxiety and emotional distress, and is empathetic towards her situation.PerceptionsRinaldi has true many percepts of herself, Potomac, Follet and Vaughan. Perception is a cognitive process by which a person becomes of aware of something through the senses. A view of Rinaldis self-perception is her high self-esteem early in the case. She is confident of herself-worth, skills and abilities because she was getting good feedback from other managers at Potomac. Rinaldis self-concept, a set of beliefs she has about herself, is she believes others view her as an enthusiastic and energetic new hire who can contribute many great marketing ideas to Potomac. When Rinaldi was choosing between her job offers after completion of her MBA, she perceived Potomac Waters to be an elite national business firm that had an especial(a) marketing department. After talking with the Potomac recruiter, her attitude towards Potomac was positive, because only they could offer the farthest marketing training and training of any company. Unfortunately this perception of Potomac go away change later on in the case. Rinaldi perceives Follet in many assorted ways. She recognizes the creative ability Follet fosters from her previous design experiences with other companies. She appreciates the complimenting relationship of Follets creativity, and Vaughans analytical way with numbers.They make a good team. However, Rinaldi notices that Follet is not providing her with the training she had hoped for. Rather, Follet was not organized for Rinaldis start at Potomac Follet pushes Rinaldi off on Vaughan for busy work, and doesnt provide consistent feedback. Rinaldi acknowledges Follet as her superior, and wants to be loyal to her. However, it is difficult with the varying responses she provides to every situation. Finally, Rinaldi has a negative perception of Vaughan. This perception is uncha nging throughout the case. He pushes his menial tasks off on her, discourages her from taking initiative on more valued projects, and takes credit for all the work. His cold attitude towards Rinaldi and other coworkers makes it hard to communicate effectively. Except when Vaughan act in a cheering match with Rinaldi about come calculations she had made. That channel won the attention of everyone in the office.Rinaldi is aware of the strange relationship of Follet and Vaughan. They seem to be very in tune to what is going on between themselves and the department. A few notable examples are as follows. Follet sent an e-mail to Rinaldi saying Vaughan perceived Rinaldi as restless a few old age into her new position at Potomac. Follet, Rinaldis supervisor, didnt observe this behavior, but rather takes into account Vaughans perceptions and attitudes. Or perhaps following the shouting incident between Vaughan and Rinaldi over a few calculations, Follet pulled Rinaldi aside and told her Vaughan is well(p) misunderstood sometimes. This wasmore than a misunderstanding of behavior, rather an excuse for Vaughans treatment of Rinaldi.ORGANIZATIONAL BLOCKAGES AND OPPORTUNITIESThe link between effort and performance is not free of obstacles. In this analysis of Martha Rinaldis case, consideration moldiness be given to organisational blockages or opportunities. These obstacles would include attitudes creating conflict, personalities other than Rinaldi, toxic emotions, behaviors of Follet and Vaughan, organisational design, resources and opportunities.Organizational Design and SocializationOrganizational design and culture is a process by which a company is structured and presented to the employees and the public. Potomacs organizational design at first appeared to Rinaldi to be a great opportunity for training. She had met Doug Berman, group product manager in the health Drinks Division, during her visit to Potomac and he shared with her his vision. Rinaldi also had pos itive feedback from other managers in regards to her good ideas, enthusiasm and drive. However, once she started she quickly realized it was not the experience she anticipated. She was not conscious of her specific appointment or supervisor until her first day. When she arrived at the health Drink Division, her supervisor sent an email notifying Rinaldi of her extemporaneousness of her arrival. Follet was not organized for Rinaldis start, nor did she drive home a plan.One in the same, Vaughan offered no time to train or mentor Rinaldi since the launch of the Invi brand was priority. Rinaldi had a good first impression of the Bautista and thought she had a handle of his expectations from the young MBA new hires. But Rinaldi was never able to contribute or challenge her skills in many projects or presentations. The entry and encounter stage of socialization into Potomac Waters was proving to be a challenging one. Not only did Follet not teach her recent hire new tasks or responsibi lities, her various reactions to situations were not indicative to office norms. Therefore, Rinaldi is stuck in stage two of socialization, unable to metamorphasize into a defined manipulation. Without the ability to carve out her economic consumption at Potomac, she is constantly in conflict with Follet and Vaughan, as she tries to establish herself.Personalities of Vaughan and FolletA second blockage besides the socialization process, are the personalities of Follet and Vaughan (Figure 1.3). Follet is doesnt seem to be highly extroverted. This can be taken in context. Notice the poor effort she puts into the conversations with Rinaldi. She is very distrait and appears too busy to be bothered by Rinaldi. This implies Follet is has very low social awareness. She isnt aware of Rinaldis emotions or behaviors towards Vaughan. Figure 1.3 biggish 5 Personality Characterization ChartKEYFollet does score high in emotional stability because she is secure and calm in her economic consum ption as product manager. She appears confident in her creative skills when marketing the Invi brand, and relies on Vaughan for his analytical skills. She also seems to be high in conscientiousness. Follets write up indicates she was a high achiever, but the case evidence suggests she hasnt been able to transition into a leader or manager. This is demonstrated by her ferocious drive to get the Invi brand marketed and meeting deadlines. She is not concerned with grooming her new hire as the brand develops, but rather is rivet on getting to the final destination despite the costs. This again is an example of low social awareness and relationship management. Vaughans personality does not appear to be extraverted. He is cold, short with Rinaldi and other coworkers, and easily irritated. This is congruent with his low sense of agreeableness. He is not cooperative with others, especially a young ambitious MBA hire like Rinaldi.He doesnt help her ad honourable to flavour at Potomac, no r does he care. He ranks high in emotional stability because of his assurance in himself, his skills and relationship with product manager, Natalie Follet. This confidence does not make him self-aware of his weaknesses or limitations. In the case, he gives orders and assignments to Rinaldi that arent directed by Follet. He doesnt seem to feel any empathy for Rinaldi when he dumps multiple assignments on her at once. Vaughans relationship management is poor. He has no interest in including Rinaldi into the Invi team, discovering her skills and abilities, and developing those assets as the work together on projects. When Rinaldi did project calculations for Vaughan, he disagreed with her findings and made a huge shouting scene in the office. He doesnt seem to wealthy person theability to control his own emotions or flexibility in working with Rinaldi, indicating low self-management.Toxic EmotionsToxic emotions in the work surround can be caused by abusive managers, unreasonable comp any policies, tumultuous colleagues or customers, and poorly managed change within an organization. Vaughans toxic behaviors toward Rinaldi, such(prenominal) as the shouting conflict over the PowerPoint- storybook assignment, or Vaughans way of treating Rinaldi as a subordinate rather than a peer, are creating a negative work environment. Follet and Vaughan collaborate on the Invi brand and make excuses for each others behavior. When Rinaldi visits with Follet on her concerns and asks for help, Follet passes her off to Vaughan. When Vaughan and Rinaldi engage in conflict, Follet tries to collected things over. However, no apparent improvement in behavior exists. Conflict reoccurs, and Rinaldi is agonistic to confront Vaughan about his behavior. This cycle is one of the reasons Rinaldi is considering if she should stay at Potomac or go back to Deep Dive.Organizational OpportunitiesThese organizational blockages do have ramifications on Rinaldis expectancies, as do the following op portunities. Rinaldi perceives Potomacs new brand Invi to be a wonderful opportunity to participate in all aspects of marketing, ultimately preparing her to better perform in a position like the one at Deep Dive. Marketing was essential to the potable industry. Even in a time of recession nationally, Potomac was able to continually take market share away from competitors and grow their business. Potomacs Health and Sports Drinks division was booster cable that growth, since consumers have trended towards healthier forms of beverage. Working with the new brand Invi would be demanding and rewarding. Rinaldi also saw opportunity in the organizations ability to promote from within.During her research of the company prior to taking her job there, she noted Potomac typically promotes its assistant product managers to product m fussinesss faster than the industry average-three years or less. This is an advantage for ambitious Rinaldi to have a chance to manage her own brand and grow prof essionally. However, it can also be a discriminate since Potomac typically changed managers assignments every 12-24 months. This is to help the product managersexperience all stages of product development and invigoration cycle. Changing assignments leave behind defy the work interesting, but could possibly prevent the development of close work relationships with coworkers.Company GoalsIn addition to opportunities, Potomac also has set company goals. Its accomplishment sizeableness is growing its national brand recognition by taking over market share from traditional beverage companies. Potomac was taking these shares over by offering healthier drink options, rather than carbonated muted drinks. In addition, Potomac wanted to grow and expand market share in their three divisions-sports drinks, health drinks and carbonated soft drinks. Invi, one of Potomacs newest takings health drinks, was approaching product launch. Goal setting theory suggests these company goals are only achievable if the employees within a company clear identify their roles. Pivotal role behaviors are behaviors a person must consent to, in order to remain part of the group or organization. These behaviors are linked to an organizations core values.An example of a pivotal role Rinaldi must accept is identifying and respecting Follet as her supervisor. Rinaldi must take orders and follow Follets advice on marketing strategies and initiatives. Another pivotal role behavior is Rinaldi must accept Invi, and the Health Drinks Division at Potomac is leading the way in market growth and expansion. Rinaldi must understand the importance of this division to the survival and performance of the company and expect her contributions will force the success of Potomac if she wants to be a member of the organization.A applicable role behavior is a good behavior that is not necessary or required of an individual to remain part of an organization. An example of a relevant role behavior was when Ri naldi was working late on her assignments to meet deadlines put in place by Follet or Vaughan. She didnt have to work late, but did because she wanted to impress Follet and work on fulfilling her need for affiliation. By filling that need for affiliation with Follet, Rinaldi hoped Follet would eventually push more challenging assignments on to her and give her feedback as part of training.Inner Work toneThe interplay between an individuals perception, emotions and motivators has an influence on their work performance. In the article Inner Work Life,Amabile and Kramer describe how a managers behavior can influence a subordinates work life. The article suggests most managers are not aware of the inner work lives of their employees, and do not value the relationship inner work life has on performance. We see this play out in the case study. Follet is not aware of Rinaldis way of making sense of workday events the value she places on learning new tasks or assisting in the launch of Inv i her foilings towards Vaughan and her role within the department her need for achievement, autonomy and affiliation and motivators for wanting to work at Potomac. Follet did not take an all-inclusive look at what Rinaldi was view and feeling as she worked in the department. Because Rinaldis inner work life was seldom expressed, Follet failed to recognize the drivers of Rinaldis performance.PERFORMANCE erstwhile the obstacles and opportunities have been identified that link effort to performance, analysis of what happened can be discussed. Rinaldis personality, skills, emotions, attitudes, perceptions and goals influence her expected performance. As did the attitudes, emotions, personalities of Vaughan and Follet, Potomacs goals and socialization process influenced Rinaldis effort-performance expectancy. After careful analysis, these factors lowered her performance level. She started out with ambitious goals for herself and the Invi brand, and now she is limited to what she can ac complish because of these blockages. Her time at Potomac has been menial tasks and projects for Vaughan. Only once did she have the opportunity to contribute to a project of value. But she didnt receive any positive reinforcement from her supervising manager Natalie Follet nor did she receive any similar follow-up projects.REINFORCEMENTRinaldi receives many versions of reinforcement at differing times and intervals within the case. Some reinforcement is positive, some negative. Reinforcement helps to characterize her behavior and influence the issuings of her performance. Rinaldi receives positive reinforcement from other managers in the office at Potomac. The article Inner Worklife, discusses individuals who experience more positive emotions in their work life, are shown to have increased productivity and performance. The article also suggests good managers do two things. First, good managers enable their employees to moveforward in their work. Solving a problem, achieving a goal or accomplishing a task seems to bring a positive feeling to an individual. Thus, making them feel as if they are making progress. The article states it is most important for managers to set clear goals to empower employees to move forward in their work (Amabile, 2007). The second thing good managers do, is treat their employees like human beings. Early in the case, other Potomac managers praise her for her ambition, energy, and good ideas when she first starts with the company.As the case unfolds, she is also greeted with positive reinforcement from Bautista on a job well do with the return on investment assignment. In this example and others in the case, Follet always does not show Rinaldi any type of reinforcement to help shape her performance in the future. By reacting this way, Follet shows there is no appreciation for good work under her management, decreasing the odds of high performance in the future. Continually Follet is very irregular in addressing issues, situations a nd behaviors. Rinaldi does not know what to expect from Follet in a given situation. This creates a muddled perception of her performance from Follets perspective. Vaughan continuously uses the punishment as reinforcement for Rinaldis behavior throughout the case.Punishment applies a negative event to increase the frequence or strength of a desirable behavior (Champoux 182). In one example, Vaughan and Rinaldi get into an argument on prioritizing storyboards and PowerPoint presentations. Vaughan immediately sends an email to Follet reporting Rinaldis behavior, punishment. In minutes, Follet is in Rinaldis office attempting to solve the issue. Follet chooses to use negative reinforcement when she scolds Rinaldi for the PowerPoint slide incident with Vaughan. Discouraged by the confrontation by Follet, Rinaldi does as she is told and finishes the projects for Vaughan. Punishment can have some undesirable side effects on behavior.Continual use of punishment doesnt resultant in learni ng a new behavior. It can often lead to undesirable behavior or cause a person to react emotionally. The person receiving this kind of reinforcement, Rinaldi in this case, develops negative feelings toward Vaughan. These feeling of distrust and anger can emasculate Rinaldis view of Follets ability to successfully shape behavior. Punishment is a much less effective use in behavior modification as compared to positive reinforcement.INEQUITYDespite the punishment she receives from Vaughan, and the unpredictability of Follet, Rinaldi wants to give Potomac her best effort. The effort and enthusiasm she gives to Potomac does not meet her organizational or individual needs and goals. Her effort and performance is undervalued because it is underutilized. She perceives this as a negative inequity, causing her to feel she is worse off. Individuals who feel they have experienced an inequity develop tension. To relieve that tension, they choose to respond by taking action in various way such as changing inputs or outcomes, withdrawal, acting on another, changing the resemblance person.A specific example from the case is when Rinaldi develops frustration with Vaughan after he gives her orders to complete storyboards. In addition he places an important PowerPoint presentation to review onto her work load as well. Rinaldi perceives this situation as inequitable because she performs Vaughans work and her own, but receives no accreditation for her effort. Rather she receives negative reinforcement from Follet for the situation. This frustration causes Rinaldi to change her outcome by confronting Vaughan about the situation later in the day. Rinaldi was appreciative of Vaughans apology, but the incident lingered unsettling to her.OUTCOMERinaldis performance and perceived inequity influences her outcome. Rinaldi did not receive the outcomes she anticipated when she started Potomac Waters. Especially after her review with Follet, Rinaldi felt as though her training has not and w ill not be a priority for Follet going forward. Rinaldis outcome can be divided into two categories intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic outcomes are those rewards individuals give to themselves. An example of an intrinsic outcome Rinaldi experienced is the satisfaction of completing the return on investment assignment for Follet. The challenging assignments completion was very self-satisfying for Rinaldi. She was hoping to receive more assignments like that in the future that would continue to sharpen her skills and abilities.Extrinsic outcomes are those rewards given to an individual by a manager as a result of the employees performance. Rinaldi had control over the performance she was willing to give however, the she does not have control of the outcome received. Managers have the ability to give or withhold these rewards for an employees performance. Examples of extrinsic outcomes are collapse increases,bonuses, promotions, or supervisors praise. In the case, Rinaldi doesnt exper ience any praise from Follet, her supervisor. In addition, Rinaldi does not receive any pay raises or promotions. Follet has withheld these outcomes from her, based on her lack of imitative on high valued projects, assertiveness and lack of verbal contribution at meetings.NeedsRinaldis goals of receiving training to better prepare her for a career in marketing were not fulfilled. Her needs of achievement, autonomy, and affiliation were not met in her short time at Potomac. Rinaldi was hoping Follet would note her work performance, and assign her more challenging projects to contribute to the launch of Invi, thus building on her need for autonomy. Instead, Rinaldi went back to making copies, running errands and doing menial tasks for Vaughan such as story boards and power points. Her need for achievement was also blundered when she didnt receive any positive feedback from Follet for a job well done on the return on investment project. A similar example was Rinaldis lack of achieveme nt comes from not having a positive review with Follet. Rather, Rinaldi was reprimanded for her lack of assertiveness, initiative, and quiet mien during meetings. This was not the feedback she was hoping for when she took the job at Potomac.The following are examples of Rinaldis discomfited attempts to fill her need for affiliation. First, Follet and Rinaldis first meeting was cold and brief, unprepared for the new hires arrival. Follet mentioned her view of Rinaldis generational challenges, commenting on Generation Ys ability to be impatient and demanding. Rinaldi insure Follet that she is a team player and quick learner. But, before Follet could respond, she was distracted by an incoming phone call. Follet made it clear how busy she was to Rinaldi, suggested that Rinaldi must learn as much as possible from Vaughan, even though Vaughan was just as busy. A separate but related incident where Rinaldi questioned her lack of affiliation to Follet was in Follets office. One morning R inaldi stopped by Follets office to ask a question. Follet made very belittled effort to glance away from her computer, showing slight interest in Rinaldi, and then directed Rinaldi to take her question to Vaughan. Disappointed with her bosss lack of interest, despite the enthusiasm she received from other managers at Potomac, she returned to her office.Rinaldi makes it instead clear her desire for affiliation toFollet, and her internal struggles with the reasoning behind Follets behavior. A final example of Rinaldis need for affiliation stems from a project Follet and Vaughan ask her to review in late October. She spent many hours working and reworking return on investment projections for the marketing launch of Invi. When she submitted her work to the Vice President of Marketing, Julius Bautista, Bautisa emailed Rinaldi praising her contribution. She was pleased (This also filled her need for achievement). However, the two people at Potomac she wanted the approval of the most, F ollet and Vaughan, said little about it and did not follow up with any similar assignments. This did not fill her need for affiliation. It didnt get any better two weeks later when Follet presented the same return on investment data to the accurate Health Drinks Division. She never once asked Rinaldi for help, nor did she involve Rinaldi in her presentation.ValanceRinaldis perception of the pelmet of all the outcomes in her situation was negative. This negative valance will determine her choice of behavior. She is nervous, frustrated, and confused about her future at Potomac. Her difficult relationship with Vaughan and lack of training opportunities from Follet has led Rinaldi to question her role at Potomac and perhaps missed opportunity at Deep Dive.RECOMMENDATIONSAfter careful analysis of the case and its many components, a recommendation can begin to be developed. My recommendation is designed to support the improvement of what I concluded are limitations, while maintaining th e positives in the situation. It is understandable to see wherefore Rinaldi is thinking the way she is. Her negative valance to the outcomes of situations has caused her to reconsider her inputs, motivations and role at Potomac. A recommendation may be to set up a meeting between Rinaldi and Follet to discuss Rinaldis personal needs and goals. The guardianship of the conversation could address the present non-functional situation, and then focus on developing a procedure to take training and role expectations to the next level.Once Rinaldi and Follet define Rinaldis role within Potomac and training expectations, perhaps a meeting could be set up with all three colleagues. Together, Follet would have the opportunity to identify uncouth goal of the department, the launch of Invi. After discussingthe goal of the group, the team could discuss role expectations of Rinaldi and Vaughan as they relate to come abouting the common goal. This will help to define the expectancies and direct ion of the team as they focus their approach to Invis launch. Hopefully this refocus will encourage team collaboration, ultimately meeting the affiliation, autonomy and achievement needs of Rinaldi helping Follet to reach her goal of a successful Invi launch, and meeting Vaughans needs for achievement and recognition for his contributions to the project.ReferencesAmabile, Teresa M., & Kramer, Steven J. (2007). Inner Work Life Understanding the Subtext of production line Performance. Harvard Business Review, 72-83. Champoux, Joseph E. (2011). Organizational Behavior Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. New York Routledge. Groysberg, B., Lee, L., & Nohria, N. (2008 July-August). Employee Motivation A mightily New Model. Harvard Business Review, 78-84. Hill, Linda A. (2001 August). Martha Rinaldi Should She Stay or Should She Go? Harvard Business School, case 4310.